Publications non ZORA

  • Bissonnette, A., Bischofberger, N. & van Schaik, C.P. (2011) Mating skew in Barbary macaque males: the role of female mating synchrony, female behavior and male-male coalitions. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 65: 167-182.
  • Rudolf von Rohr, C., Burkart, J.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (2011). Evolutionary precursors of social norms in chimpanzees: a new approach. Biology & Philosophy 26: 1-30
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Burkart, J. (2011) Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 366: 1008-1016.
  • Nater, A, Nietlisbach, P, Arora, N, van Schaik, C.P., van Noordwijk, M.A., Willems, E.P., Singleton, I., Wich, S.A., Goossens, B., Warren, K.S., Verschoor, E.J., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Pamungkas, J. & Krützen, M. (2011) Sex-biased dispersal and volcanic activities shaped phylogeographic patterns of extant orangutans (genus: Pongo). Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 2275-2288.
  • Lyon, J.E., Pandit, S.A., van Schaik, C.P. & Pradhan, G.R. (2011) A game theoretical approach to infanticide in primates. Journal of Theoretical Biology 274: 103-108.
  • Weingrill, T. & van Schaik, C.P. (2011) Sexueller Zwang bei Primaten: Evolutionäre Ursachen und Gegenstrategien der Weibchen. Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung 24: 111-133.
  • Wich, S., Vogel, E.R., Larsen, M.D., Fredriksson, G., Leighton, M., Yeager, C.P., Brearly, F.Q., van Schaik, C.P., & Marshall, A.J. (2011) Forest fruit production is higher on Sumatra than on Borneo. PLoS One 6: e21278.
  • Slik, F.W., Aiba, S.-I., Bastian, M.L.. Brearley, F.Q., Cannon, C.H., Eichhorn, K.A.O., Fredriksson, G., Kartawinata, K., Laumonier, Y., Mansor, A., Marjokorpi, A., Meijaard, E., Morley, R.J., Nagamasu, H., Nilus, R., Nurtjahya, E., Payne, J., Permana, A., Poulsen, A.D., Raes, N., Riswan, S., van Schaik, C.P., Sheil, D., Sidiyasa, K., Suzuki, E., van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H., Webb, C.O., Wich, S., Yoneda, T., Zakaria, R. & Zweifel, N. (2011) Soils on exposed Sunda Shelf shaped biogeographic patterns in the equatorial forests of Southeast Asia. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 108: 12343-12347. (doi/10.1073/pnas.1103353108).
  • Jaeggi, A.V. & van Schaik, C.P. (2011) The evolution of food sharing in primates. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 65:2125-2140. (doi:10.1007/s00265-011-1221-3)
  • Hanya, G., Stevenson, P., van Noordwijk, M., Wong, S.T., Kanamori, T., Kuze, N., Aiba, S.-I., Chapman, C.A. & van Schaik, C.P. (2011) Seasonality in fruit availability affects frugivorous primate biomass and species richness. Ecography 34: 1009-1017.
  • MacLean E, Matthews L, Hare B, Nunn C, Anderson R, Aureli F, Brannon E, Call J, Drea C, Emery N, Haun D, Herrmann E, Jacobs L, Platt M, Rosati A, Sandel A, Schroepfer K, Seed A, Tan J, van Schaik C, Wobber V How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology. Animal cognition:1-16. doi:10.1007/s10071-011-0448-8
  • Krützen, M., Willems, E.P. & van Schaik, C.P. (2011) Culture and geographic variation in orang-utan behaviour. Current Biology 21: 1808-1812.
  • Navarrete, A.R., van Schaik, C.P. & Isler, K. (2011) Energetics and the evolution of human brain size. Nature 480: 91-3.
  • Lehner, S., Burkart, J.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (2011) Can captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) be coaxed into cumulative build-up of techniques? J. Comp. Psych. 125: 446-455.

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  • Kappeler, P.M., Silk, J.B., Burkart, J.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (2010) Primate behavior and human universals: exploring the gap. In Kappeler, P.M., Silk, J.B (eds) Mind the Gap: Tracing the Origins of Human Universals. Springer-Verlag, Berlin & Heidelberg. Pp. 3-17.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Burkart, J.M. (2010) Mind the Gap: Cooperative breeding and the evolution of our unique features. In Kappeler, P.M., Silk, J.B (eds) Mind the Gap: Tracing the Origins of Human Universals. Springer-Verlag, Berlin & Heidelberg. Pp. 477-496.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (2010) Social learning and culture in animals. In Kappeler, P.M. (ed) Behaviour: Mechanisms and Functions. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. Pp. 623-653.
  • Henzi, S.P., Clarke, P.M.R., van Schaik, C.P., Pradhan, G.R. & Barrett, L. (2010) Infanticide and reproductive restraint in a polygynous social mammal. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 2130-2135.
  • Whiten, A., McGrew, W.C., Aiello, L.C., Boesch, C., Boyd, R., Byrne, R.W., Dunbar, R.I.M., Matsuzawa, T., Silk, J.B., Tomasello, M., van Schaik, C.P. & Wrangham, R.W. (2010) Studying extant species to model our past. Science 327: 410.
  • Burkart, J, & van Schaik, C.P. (2010) Cognitive consequences of cooperative breeding in primates. Anim. Cogn. 13: 1-19.
  • Jaeggi, A.V., Dunkel, L.P., van Noordwijk, M.A. Wich, S.A., Sura A.A.L. & van Schaik, C.P. (2010) Social learning of diet and foraging skills by wild immature Bornean orangutans: implications for culture. Am. J. Primatol. 72: 62-71
  • Grüter, C.G. & van Schaik, C.P. (2010) Evolutionary determinants of modular societies in colobines. Behav. Ecol. 21: 63-71.
  • vLehner, S., Burkart, J.M., van Schaik, C.P. (2010). An evaluation of the geographic method for recognizing innovations in nature, using zoo orangutans. Primates 51: 101-118.
  • Wartmann, F.M, Purves, R.S. & van Schaik, C.P. (2010) Modelling ranging behaviour of female orang-utans: a case study in Tuanan, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Primates 51: 119-130.
  • Spillmann, B., Dunkel, L., van Noordwijk, M.A., Amda, R.N.A., Lameira, A.R., Wich, S.A. and van Schaik, C.P. (2010) Acoustic properties of long calls given by flanged male orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) reflect both individual identity and context. Ethology 116: 385-395.
  • Kendal, R.L., Galef, B.G., van Schaik, C.P. (2010). Social learning research outside the laboratory: How and Why? Learning & Behavior 38: 187-194. (In special issue entitled Capturing Social Learning in Natural Contexts: Methodological Insights and Implications for Culture (Kendal RL, Galef BG, van Schaik CP, eds.).
  • Jaeggi, A.V., Burkart, J.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (2010). On the psychology of cooperation in humans and other primates: combining the natural history and experimental evidence of prosociality. Phil. Trans. Roy Soc. B. 365: 2723-2735.
  • Jaeggi, A.V., Stevens, J.M.G. & van Schaik, C.P. (2010) Tolerant food sharing and reciprocity is precluded by despotism among bonobos but not chimpanzees. Am. J. Phys. Anthro. 143: 41-51.
  • Bastian, M, Zweifel, N., Vogel, E., Wich, S.A., and van Schaik, C.P. (2010) Diet traditions in wild orangutans. Am. J. Phys. Anthro. 143: 175-187.
  • Arora, N., Nater, A. van Schaik, C.P., Willems, E.P., van Noordwijk, M.A., Goossens, B., Morf, N., Bastian, M., Knott, C.K., Morrogh-Bernard, H., Kuze, N., Kanamori, T., Pamungkas, J., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D., Verschoor, E., Warren, K, and Krützen, M. (2010) Effects of Pleistocene glaciations and rivers on the population structure of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA 107: 21376-21381.
  • van Woerden, J.T., van Schaik, C.P. & Isler, K. (2010). Effects of seasonality on brain size evolution: evidence from strepsirrhine primates. Am. Nat. 176: 758-767.

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  • Aureli, F., Schaffner, C.M., Boesch, C., Bearder, S.K., Call, J., Chapman, C.A., Connor, R., DiFiore, A., Dunbar, R.I.M., Henzi, S.P., Holekamp, K., Korstjens, A., Layton, R., Lee, P., Lehmann, J., Manson, J.H., Ramos-Fernandez, G., Strier, K.B. & van Schaik, C.P. (2008). Fission-Fusion dynamics. Current Anthropology 49: 627- 654.
  • Modolo, L., Martin, R.D., van Schaik, C.P., van Noordwijk, M.A. & Krützen, M. (2008) When dispersal fails: unexpected genetic separation in Gibraltar macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Mol. Ecol. 17: 4027-4038.
  • Jaeggi, A.V., van Noordwijk, M.A. & van Schaik, C.P. (2008) Begging for information: mother-offspring food sharing among wild Bornean orangutans. Am. J. Primatol. 70: 533-541.
  • Wich, S.A., Meijaard, E., Marshall, A.J., Husson, S., Ancrenaz, M., Lacy, R.C., van Schaik, C.P., Sugardjito, J., Simorangkir, T., Traylor-Holzer, K., Doughty, M., Supriatna, J., Dennis, R., Gumanl, M., Knott, C.D. & Singleton, I. (2008) Distribution and conservation status of the orang-utan (Pongo spp.) on Borneo and Sumatra: how many remain? Oryx 42: 329-339.
  • Vogel, E.R., van Woerden, J.T., Lucas, P.W., Utami Atmoko, S.S., van Schaik, C.P., & Dominy, N.J. (2008), Functional ecology and evolution of hominoid molar enamel: Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii. J. Human Evol. 55: 60-74.
  • Barrickman, N., Bastian, M., Isler, K. & van Schaik, C.P. (2008). Life history costs and benefits of increased brain size: a comparative test using primates. J. Human Evol. 54: 568-590.
  • Pradhan, G.R. & van Schaik, C.P. (2008) Infanticide-driven intersexual conflict over matings in primates, and its effects on social organization. Behaviour 145: 251-275.
  • Ramsey, G., Bastian, M.L. & van Schaik, C.P. (2007) Animal innovation defined and operationalized. Behav. & Brain Sciences 30: 393-437.
  • Burkart, J., Fehr, E., Efferson, C., and van Schaik, C.P. (2007) Other-regarding preferences in a non-human primate: common marmosets provision food altruistically. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, USA 104: 19762-19766
  • van Schaik, C.P. (2007) Culture in primates and other animals. In (R. Dunbar & L. Barrett, eds) Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 103-113.
  • Deaner, R.O., Isler, K., Burkart, J.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (2007) Overall brain size, and not encephalization quotient, best predicts cognitive ability across non-human primates. Brain, Behavior, Evolution 70: 115-124.
  • Mitra Setia, T. & C.P. van Schaik (2007) The response of adult orang-utans to adult male long-calls: inferences about their function. Folia Primatol. 78:215-226.

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  • Lewis, R.J. & van Schaik, C.P. (2007) Bimorphism in male Verreaux’s sifaka in the Kirindy forest of Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology 28: 159- 182.
  • Whiten, A. & van Schaik, C.P. (2007). The evolution of animal ‘cultures’ and social intelligence. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 362: 603–620.
  • Taylor, A.B. & van Schaik, C.P. (2007) Variation in brain size and ecology in Pongo. J. Hum. Evol. 52: 59-71.
  • Wich, S. A., Steenbeek, R., Sterck, E.H.M., Korstjens, AH, Willems, EP. and van Schaik, C. P (2007) Demography and life history of Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi). American Journal of Primatology 69: 641-651.
  • Krützen, M., van Schaik, C.P., Whiten, A. (2007) The animal cultures debate: response to Laland and Janik. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2: 6.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (2007) Culture in primates and other animals. In (R. Dunbar & L. Barrett, eds) Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 103-113.
  • Deaner, R.O., Isler, K., Burkart, J.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (2007) Overall brain size, and not encephalization quotient, best predicts cognitive ability across non-human primates. Brain, Behavior, Evolution 70: 115-124.
  • Mitra Setia, T. & C.P. van Schaik (2007) The response of adult orang-utans to adult male long-calls: inferences about their function. Folia Primatol. 78:215-226.
  • Lewis, R.J. & van Schaik, C.P. (2007) Bimorphism in male Verreaux’s sifaka in the Kirindy forest of Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology 28: 159- 182.
  • Whiten, A. & van Schaik, C.P. (2007). The evolution of animal ‘cultures’ and social intelligence. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 362: 603–620.
  • Taylor, A.B. & van Schaik, C.P. (2007) Variation in brain size and ecology in Pongo. J. Hum. Evol. 52: 59-71.
  • Wich, S. A., Steenbeek, R., Sterck, E.H.M., Korstjens, AH, Willems, EP. and van Schaik, C. P (2007) Demography and life history of Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi). American Journal of Primatology 69: 641-651.
  • Krützen, M., van Schaik, C.P., Whiten, A. (2007) The animal cultures debate: response to Laland and Janik. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2: 6.
  • Isler, K. & van Schaik, C.P. (2006) Metabolic costs of brain size evolution. Biol. Lett. 2: 557-560.
  • Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. & Johnson, V. (2006) Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others? A meta-analysis of nonhuman primate studies. Evol. Psychol. 4: 149-196.
  • Pradhan, G., Engelhard, A., C.P. van Schaik, D. Maestripieri (2006) The evolution of female copulation calls in primates: a review and a new model. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 59: 333-343.
  • Isler, K. & van Schaik, C.P. (2006) Metabolic costs of brain size evolution. Biol.Lett. (doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0538)
  • van Schaik, C.P., van Noordwijk, M.A., Barrickman, N., Bastian, M. & Krakauer, E.B. (2006) Primate life histories and the role of brains. Pp. 127-153, in (K. Hawkes & R.L. Paine, eds) The Evolution of Human Life History. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.

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  • Robson, S., van Schaik, C. & Hawkes, K. (2006) The derived features of human life history. Pp. 17-44, in (K. Hawkes & R.L. Paine, eds) The Evolution of Human Life History. Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.
  • van Schaik, C.P., van Noordwijk, M.A. & Wich, S. (2006) Innovation in wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii). Behaviour 143: 839-876.
  • Isler, K. & van Schaik, C.P. (2006) Costs of encephalisation: the energy trade-off hypothesis tested on birds. J. Hum. Evol. 51: 228-243.
  • Fichtel, C. & van Schaik, C.P. (2006) Semantic differences in sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) alarm calls: a reflection of genetic or cultural variants? Ethology 112: 839-849.
  • Deaner, R.O., van Schaik, C.P. & Johnson, V. (2006) Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others? A meta-analysis of nonhuman primate studies. Evol. Psychol. 4: 149-196.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (2006) Why are some animals so smart? Scientific American 294 (4): 64-71.
  • Pradhan, G., Engelhard, A., C.P. van Schaik, D. Maestripieri (2006) The evolution of female copulation calls in primates: a review and a new model. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 59: 333-343.
  • Kappeler, P.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (eds)(2005) Cooperation in Primates and Humans: Mechanisms and Evolution. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.
    van Schaik, C.P. & Kappeler; P.M. (2005) Cooperation among primates and humans: closing the gap. Pp. 3-21
    van Schaik, C.P., Pandit, S.A. & Vogel, E.R. (2005) Toward a general model for male-male coalitions in primate groups. Pp. 151-171.
  • Brockman, D.K. & van Schaik, C.P. (eds)(2005) Seasonality in Primates: Studies of Living and Extinct Non-Human and Human Primates. Cambridge, University Press, Cambridge.
    van Schaik, C.P. & Brockman, D.K. (2005) Introduction. Pp. 3-20
    van Schaik, C.P. & Pfannes, K. (2005) Tropical climates and phenology: a primate perspective. Pp. 23-54
    Brockman, D.K. & van Schaik, C.P. (2005) Seasonality and reproductive function. Pp. 269-305
    Plavcan, J.M., van Schaik, C.P. & McGraw, W.S. (2005) Seasonality, social organization and sexual dimorphism in primates. Pp. 401-441
    van Schaik, C.P., Madden, R. & Ganzhorn, J.U. (2005) Seasonality and primate communities. Pp. 445-463
  • van Schaik, C.P., Wich, S.A., Utami, S.S. & Odom, K. (2005) A simple alternative to line transects of nests for estimating orangutan densities. Primates 46: 249-254.

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  • van Noordwijk, M.A. & van Schaik, C.P. (2005) Development of ecological competence in Sumatran orangutans. American Journal of Physica Anthropology 127: 79-94
  • Wich, S.A., Utami-Atmoko, S.S., Mitra Setia, T., Rijksen, H.D. Schürmann, C., van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (2004) Life history of wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii). Journal of Human Evolution 47: 385-298.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Pandit, S.A. & Vogel, E.R. (2004) A model for within-group coalitionary aggression among males. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 57: 101-109.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (2004) Among Orangutans: Red Apes and the Rise of Human Culture. Belknap/ Harvard University Press.
  • Fox, E.A, van Schaik, C.P., Sitompul, A., Wright, D.N. (2004). Intra- and interpopulational differences in orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) activity and diet: implications for the invention of tool use. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 125: 162-174.
  • Wich, S.A., Buij, R., and van Schaik, C.P. (2004) Determinants of orangutan density in the dryland forests of the Leuser Ecosystem. Primates 45: 177-182.
  • Zinner, D., Nunn, C.L., van Schaik, C.P. & Kappeler, P.M. (2004) Sexual selection and exaggerated sexual swellings of female primates. Pp. 71-89.
  • van Noordwijk, M.A. & van Schaik, C.P. (2004) Sexual selection and the careers of primate males: paternity concentration, dominance acquisition tactics and transfer decisions. Pp. 208-229.
  • van Schaik, C.P. , Pradhan, G.R., van Noordwijk, M.A. (2004) Mating conflict in primates: infanticide, sexual harassment and female sexuality. Pp. 131-150.
  • Kappeler, P.M. & C. van Schaik (2004) Sexual selection in primates: review and selective preview. Pp. 3-23.
  • Kappeler, P.M., van Schaik, C.P.(eds) (2004) Sexual Selection in Primates: New and Comparative Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Preuschoft, S. & Watts, D.P. (2004) Great Ape Societies: Structures, bonds and cognition. Pp. 192-210 in: (Russon, A. & Begun, D., eds) The Evolution of Thought. Cambridge University Press.
  • Pandit, S.A. & van Schaik, C.P. (2003) A model for leveling coalitions among primate males: toward a theory of egalitarianism. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 55: 161-168.
  • Buij, R.,Singleton, I, Krakauer, E & van Schaik, C.P (2003) Rapid assessment of orangutan density. Biol. Cons. 114: 103-113.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (2003) Local traditions in orangutans and chimpanzees: social learning and social tolerance. Pp. 297-328, in D. Fragaszy and S. Perry (eds) The Biology of Animal Traditions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Kappeler, P.M. (2003) The evolution of social monogamy in primates. Pp. 59-80, in U.H. Reichard & C. Boesch (eds) Monogamy: Mating Strategies and Partnerships in Birds, Humans and Other Mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Pradhan, G.R. (2003). A model for tool-use traditions in primates: implications for the coevolution of culture and cognition. J. Hum. Evol. 44: 645-664.
  • Deaner, R.O., Barton, R.A., & van Schaik, C.P. (2003) Primate brains and life histories: Renewing the connection. Pp. 233-265, in: (Kappeler, P.M. & Pereira, M.E., eds) Primate Life Histories and Socioecology, Chicago University Press.
  • Kappeler, P.M., van Schaik, C.P., & Pereira, M.E. (2003) Primate Life Histories and Socioecology. Pp. 1-20, in (Kappeler, P.M. & Pereira, M.E., (eds) Primate Life Histories and Socioecology. Chicago University Press.

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  • van Schaik, C.P., Fox, E.A. & Fechtman, L.T. (2003) Individual variation in the rate of use of tree-hole tools among wild orangutans: implications for hominin evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 44: 11-23.
  • Pandolfi, S.S., van Schaik, C.P., and Pusey, A.E. 2003. Sex differences in termite fishing among Gombe chimpanzees are due to socioecological factors. Pp. 414-418, in (F. de Waal and P. Tyack, eds.): Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture, and Individualized Societies. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Deaner, R.O. (2003) Life history and cognitive evolution in primates. Pp. 5-25, in: (de Waal, F.B.M. & Tyack, P.L., eds) Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture, and Individualized Societies, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Wich, S., Singleton, I., Utami-Atmoko, S.S., Geurts, M.L. Rijksen, H.D., van Schaik, C.P. (2003) Present distribution of the Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii). Oryx 37: 49-54.

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  • Wich, S.A., Koski, S. & van Schaik, C.P. (2003). Individual and contextual variation in Thomas langur male loud calls. Ethology 109: 1-13.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Ancrenaz, M., Borgen, G., Galdikas, B., Knott, C.D., Singleton, I., Suzuki, A., Utami, S.S., & Merrill, M.Y. (2003). Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. Science 299: 102-105.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Ancrenaz, M., Borgen, G., Galdikas, B., Knott, C.D., Singleton, I., Suzuki, A., Utami, S.S., & Merrill, M.Y. (2003). Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. Science 299: 102-105.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (2002). Primate societies and social life. Pp. 934-939, in: (M. Pagel, ed.) Encyclopedia of Evolution. Oxford University Press.
  • Aureli, F.A., Cords, M. and van Schaik, C.P. (2002). Conflict resolution following aggression in gregarious animals: a predictive framework. Anim. Behav. 64: 325-343.
  • Singleton, I.S. & van Schaik, C.P. (2002) The social organization of a population of Sumatran orangutans. Folia Primatol. 73: 1-20.
  • Kappeler, P.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (2002) Evolution of primate social systems. Int. J. Primatol. 23: 707-740.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (2002) The fragility of traditions: the disturbance hypothesis for the loss of local traditions in orangutans. Int. J. Primatol. 23: 527-538.
  • Johnson, V.E. , Deaner, R.O. and van Schaik, C.P. (2002) Bayesian analysis of multi-study rank data with application to primate intelligence ratings. J. Am. Stat. Soc. 97: 8-17.
  • van Schaik, C., Terborgh, J., Davenport, L. & Rao, M. (2002) Making parks work: past, present, and future. Pp. 468-481.
  • van Schaik, C. & Rao, M. (2002) The frontier model of development and its relevance to protected area management. Pp. 424-440.
  • van Schaik, C. (2002) Anarchy and parks: dealing with political instability. Pp. 352-362.
  • Griffiths, M., van Schaik, C. & Rijksen, H.D. (2002) Conserving the Leuser Ecosystem: politics, policies, and people. Pp. 203-217.

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  • van Schaik, C. & Rijksen, H.D. (2002) Integrated conservation and development projects: problems and potential. Pp. 15-29.
  • Terborgh, J. & C. van Schaik (2002) Why the world needs parks. Pp. 3-14.
  • Terborgh, J., van Schaik, C. Davenport, L. & Rao, M. (eds) (2002) Making Parks Work: Strategies for Preserving Tropical Nature. Island Press, Washington DC.
  • Plavcan, J. M., Jungers, W. L., Kay, R. F. & van Schaik, C.P. (2002) Conclusions: reconstructing behavior in the fossil record. Pp. 413-428.
  • Nunn, C.L. & van Schaik, C.P. (2002) A comparative approach to reconstructing the socioecology of extinct primates. Pp. 159-215.
  • Plavcan, J. M., Jungers, W. L., Kay R. F. & van Schaik, C. P. (eds). (2002) Reconstructing Behavior in the Primate Fossil Record. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Heistermann, M., Ziegler, T., van Schaik, C.P. , Launhardt, K., Winkler, P. & Hodges, J.K. (2001) Loss of oestrus, concealed ovulation and paternity confusion in free-ranging Hanuman langurs. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 268: 2445-2451.
  • Singleton, I.S. & van Schaik, C.P. (2001) Orangutan home range size and its determinants in a Sumatran swamp forest. Int. J. Primatol. 22: 877- 911.
  • Nunn, C.L., van Schaik, C.P., Zinner, D. (2001) Do exaggerated sexual swellings function in female mating competition in primates? A comparative test of the reliable indicator hypothesis. Behav. Ecol. 12: 646-654.
  • van Noordwijk, M.A. & C.P. van Schaik (2001). Career moves: transfer and rank challenge decisions by male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behaviour 138: 359-395.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Knott, C.D. (2001) Geographic variation in tool use on Neesia fruits in orangutans. Am. J. Phys. Anthro. 114: 331-342.
  • Steenbeek, R. & van Schaik, C.P. (2001) Competition and group size in Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi): the folivore paradox revisited. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 49: 100-110.
  • Robertson, J.M.Y. & C.P. van Schaik (2001) Causal factors underlying the dramatic decline of the Sumatran orang-utan. Oryx 35: 26-38.

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  • van Schaik, C.P., Monk, K., Robertson, J.M.Y. (2001) Dramatic decline in orang-utan numbers in the Leuser Ecosystem, northern Sumatra. Oryx 35: 14-25.
  • Delgado, R.A., Jr. & van Schaik, C.P. (2000) Behavioral ecology and conservation of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus): a tale of two islands. Evol. Anthro. 9: 201-218.
  • Janson, C.H. & van Schaik, C.P. (2000) The behavioral ecology of infanticide by males. Pp. 469-494.
  • Nunn, C.L. & van Schaik, C.P. (2000) Social evolution in primates: the relative roles of ecology and intersexual conflict. Pp. 388-419.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Hodges, J.K. & Nunn, C.L. (2000) Paternity confusion and the ovarian cycles of female primates. Pp. 361-387.
  • van Noordwijk, M.A. & van Schaik, C.P. (2000) Reproductive patterns in Eutherian mammals: adaptations against infanticide? Pp. 322-360.
  • Paul, A., Preuschoft, S. & van Schaik, C. P. (2000) The other side of the coin: infanticide and the evolution of affiliative male-infant interactions in Old World primates. Pp. 269-292.
  • van Schaik, C. P. (2000) Vulnerability to infanticide by males: patterns among mammals. Pp. 61-71.
  • van Schaik, C. P. (2000) Infanticide by male primates: the sexual selection hypothesis revisited. Pp. 27-60.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Janson, C.H. (eds) (2000) Infanticide by males and its implications. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wich, S.A. & C.P. van Schaik. (2000) The impact of El Niño on mast fruiting in Sumatra and elsewhere in Malesia. J. Trop. Ecol. 16: 563-577.
  • Preuschoft, S. and van Schaik, C.P. (2000) Dominance, social relationships and conflict management. In F. Aureli and F.B.M, de Waal (eds) Conflict Management, pp. 77-105. California University Press, Berkeley.

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  • van Schaik, C.P. and Aureli, F. (2000) The natural history of social relationships in primates. In F. Aureli and F.B.M, de Waal (eds) Conflict Management, pp. 307-333. California University Press, Berkeley.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (2000) Social counterstrategies against male infanticide in primates and other mammals. In P.M. Kappeler (ed) Primate Males, pp. 34-52. Cambridge University Press.
  • Deaner, R.O., Nunn, C.L. & van Schaik, C.P. (2000) Comparative tests of primate cognition: different scaling methods produce different results. Brain, Behav. Evol. 55: 44-52.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Deaner, R.O. & Merrill, M. (1999) The conditions for tool use in primates: implications for the evolution of material culture. J. Hum. Evol. 36: 719-741.
  • Fox, E.A., Sitompul, A.F. & van Schaik, C.P. (1999) Intelligent tool use in wild Sumatran orangutans. In: S. Parker, L. Miles & A. Mitchell: The Mentality of Gorillas and Orangutans, pp. 99-117. Cambridge University Press.
  • van Noordwijk, M.A. & van Schaik, C.P. (1999) Determinants of reproductive success in wild female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): a 12-year study. Primates 40: 105-130.
  • van Schaik, C.P., van Noordwijk, M.A. & Nunn, C.L. (1999) Sex and social evolution in primates. Pp. 204-240, in P. Lee (ed) Comparative Socio-ecology of Primates. Cambridge University Press.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (1999) The socioecology of fission-fusion sociality in Sumatran orangutans. Primates 40: 73-90.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Kappeler, P.M. (1997) Infanticide risk and the evolution of permanent male-female association in primates. Proc. Roy. Soc., Lond. B 264: 1687-1694.
  • Sterck, E.H.M., Watts, D.P., & van Schaik, C.P. (1997) The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 41: 291-309.
  • Kay, R.F., Madden, R.H., van Schaik, C.P., Higdon, D. (1997) Primate species richness is determined by plant productivity: implications for conservation. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 94: 13023- 13027.

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  • van Schaik, C.P. & Paul, A. (1997) Male care in primates: does it ever reflect paternity? Evol. Anthro. 5: 152-156.
  • Plavcan, J.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (1997): Intrasexual competition and body weight dimorphism in anthropoid primates. Amer. J. Phys. Anthro. 103: 37-68.
  • Plavcan, J.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (1997) Interpreting hominid behavior on the basis of sexual dimorphism. J. Human Evol. 32: 345-374.
  • Rao, M. & van Schaik, C.P. (1997) The effects of selective logging on the ecology of individual orangutans. Tropical Biodiv. 4: 173-185.
  • Kramer, R. A. & van Schaik, C. P. (1997) Preservation paradigms and tropical rain forests. Pp. 3-14.
  • Terborgh, J. & van Schaik, C. P. (1997) Minimizing species loss: the imperative of protection. Pp. 15-35.
  • van Schaik, C. P., Terborgh, J. & Dugelby, B. (1997) The silent crisis: the state of rain forest nature preserves. Pp. 64-89.
  • van Schaik, C. P. & Kramer, R. A. (1997) Toward a new protection paradigm. Pp. 212-230.
  • Kramer, R.A., van Schaik, C.P. & Johnson, J. A. (eds) Last Stand, Protected Areas and the Defense of Tropical Biodiversity. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Kappeler, P.M. (1996) The social systems of gregarious lemurs: lack of convergence due to evolutionary disequilibrium? Ethology 102: 915-941.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (1996) Social evolution in primates: the role of ecological factors and male behaviour. Proc. British Academy 88: 9-31.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Griffiths, M. (1996) Activity periods of Indonesian rain forest mammals. Biotropica 28: 105-112.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Amerongen, A.J.J. van, & Noordwijk, M.A. van (1996): Riverine refuging in Sumatran longtailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Pp. 160-181, in (J. Fa & D. Lindburg, eds.) Evolution and ecology of macaque societies. Cambridge University Press.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. (1996): Toward an understanding of the orangutan's social system. Pp. 3-15, in (W. McGrew and T. Nishida, eds) Great Apes Societies. Cambridge University Press.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Supriatna, J. (editors) (1996): Leuser, A Sumatran Sanctuary (24 chapters; chapters by CvS on the need of rain forest protection, strangling figs, phenology, orangutan population status, orangutan rehabilitation and macaques).
  • van Schaik, C.P., Fox, E.A. & Sitompul, A.F. (1996) Manufacture and use of tools in wild Sumatran orangutans: implications for human evolution. Naturwissenschaften 83: 186-188.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Azwar & Priatna, D. (1995) Population estimates and habitat preferences of orangutans based on line transects of nests. Pp. 129- 147, in (R. Nadler, B. Galdikas, L. Sheehan & N. Rosen, eds) The neglected ape. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Soemarna, K., Ramono, W., Poniran, S., van Schaik, C.P., Rijksen, H.D., Leighton, M., Sajuthi, D., Karesh, W., Griffiths, M., Seal, U.S., Traylor-Holzer, K. and Tilson, R. (1995) Conservation action plan for orangutans in Indonesia. Pp. 123-128, in (R. Nadler, B. Galdikas, L. Sheehan & N. Rosen, eds) The neglected ape. Plenum Press, New York.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Poniran, S., Utami S., Griffiths, M., Djojosudharmo, S., Mitra Setia, T., Sugardjito, J., Rijksen, H.D., Seal, U., Faust, T., Traylor-Holzer, K. & Tilson, R. (1995) Estimates of orangutan distribution and status in Sumatra. Pp. 109-116, in (R. Nadler, B. Galdikas, L. Sheehan & N. Rosen, eds) The neglected ape. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Hrdy, S.B., Janson, C.H. and van Schaik, C.P. (1995): Infanticide: let's not throw out the baby with the bathwater. Evol. Anthrop. 3: 151-154.
  • Plavcan, J. M., van Schaik, C.P., Kappeler, P.M. (1995): Competition, coalitions and canine size in primates. J. Human Evolution 28: 245-276.
  • van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (1994): Male bonding: variation in affiliative relations among nonhuman primates. Behaviour 130: 309-337.
  • Plavcan, J.M. & van Schaik, C.P. (1994): Canine dimorphism. Evolutionary Anthropology 2: 208-214.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Hoerstermann, M. (1994): Male protection against predators and the number of males in a primate group. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 35: 261-272.
  • Aureli, F., van Schaik, C.P. & Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van (1989): Functional aspects of reconciliation in captive Macaca fascicularis. Amer. J. Primatol. 19: 39-51

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  • Sugardjito, J., van Schaik, C.P., Noordwijk, M.A. van & Mitrasetia, T. (1989): The population status of the Simeulue monkey, Macaca fascicularis fusca. Amer. J. Primatol. 17: 197-207.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Netto, W.J., Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van (1989): Java-apen (Macaca fascicularis): sociale organisatie in het tropisch regenwoud en groepsbeheer in het laboratorium. Biotechniek 28: 6-8.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Noordwijk, M.A. van (1989): The special role of male Cebus monkeys in predation avoidance, and its effect on group composition. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 24: 265-276.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (1989): The ecology of social relationships among female primates. In: (V. Standen & R. Foley, eds) Comparative Socioecology, the behavioural ecology of humans and other mammals. (British Ecological Society, symp. 28, 1987), pp.195-218. Blackwells, Oxford.
  • van Noordwijk, M.A. & van Schaik, C.P. (1988): Male careers in Sumatran long-tailed macaques. Behaviour 107: 24-43.
  • Janson, C.H. & van Schaik, C.P. (1988): Recognizing the many faces of primate food competition: methods. Behaviour 105: 165-186.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Noordwijk, M.A. van (1988): Scramble and contest among female long-tailed macaques in a Sumatran rain forest. Behaviour 105: 77-98.
  • Terborgh, J. & van Schaik, C.P. (1987): Convergence vs. non-convergence in primate communities. In: (J.H.R. Gee & P.S. Giller, eds) Organization of communities, past and present. (British Ecological Society symp. 27, 1986), pp 205-226. Blackwells, Oxford.
  • Noordwijk, M.A. van & van Schaik, C.P. (1987): Competition among adult female long-tailed macaques. Anim. Behav. 35: 577-589.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Noordwijk, M.A. van (1986): The hidden costs of sociality: intragroup variation in feeding strategies in Sumatran long-tailed macaques. Behaviour 99: 296-315.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (1986): Phenological changes in a Sumatran rain forest. J. Trop. Ecol. 2: 327-347.
  • Hogeweg, P., Hesper, B., van Schaik, C.P. & Beeftink, W.G. (1985): Patterns in vegetation succession, an ecomorphological study. In: (J. White, ed.) The population structure of vegetation, 637-666. Junk Publ., Dordrecht.
  • Noordwijk, M.A. van & van Schaik, C.P. (1985): Male migration and rank acquisition in wild long-tailed macaques (fusca). Anim. Behav. 33: 849-861.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Noordwijk, M.A. van (1985): Evolutionary effect of the absence of felids on the social organization of the macaques on the island of Simeulue (Macaca fascicularis fusca, Miller 1903). Folia primatol. 44: 138-147.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Noordwijk, M.A. (1985): Interannual variability in fruit abundance and the reproductive seasonality in Sumatran long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). J. Zool. (Lond.) 206: 533-549.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Mirmanto, E. (1985). Spatial variation in the structure and litterfall of a Sumatran rain forest. Biotropica 17: 196-205.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Noordwijk, M.A. van, Warsono, B. & Sutriono, E. (1983): Party size and early detection of predators in Sumatran forest primates. Primates 24: 211-221.
  • van Schaik, C.P., Noordwijk, M.A. van, Boer, R.J. de & Tonkelaar, I. den (1983): The effect of group size on time budgets and social behaviour in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 13: 173-181.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Noordwijk, M.A. van (1983): Social stress and the sex ratio of neonates and infants among non-human primates. Neth. J. Zool. 33: 249-265.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. (1983): On the ultimate causes of primate social systems. Behaviour 85: 91-117.
  • van Schaik, C.P. (1983): Why are diurnal primates living in groups? Behaviour 87: 120-144.
  • van Schaik, C.P. & Hogeweg, P. (1977): A numerical- syntaxonomical study of the Calthion palustris Tx.37 in the Netherlands. Vegetatio 35: 65-80.
  • Hovenkamp, P.H. & van Schaik, C.P. (1976): Changes in the moss flora of the Fazantenbos (in Dutch; abstract in English). Lindbergia 3: 318-322.