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Institut für Evolutionäre Anthropologie (IEA)

Fieldguide List


  1. Write down everything you find interesting, unusual or remarkable.
  2. Repeat name focal(s), date and observer on every page, including map(s).
  3. When in doubt about (instantaneous) Activity count to 5 - note first activity sustained for more than 5 seconds (for example when moving inside a food patch).
    When in doubt use the hierarchy: Soc > M > F > R
  4. Write in the “sosial” column also special activities and features of the “cultures and traditions checklist”.
  5. Morning nest: Write down when observer arrives at the nest as well as the start of the active period = when the focal becomes active on the nest (sits up, plays with infant etc.) or leaves nest. Whenever the focal has moved to another nest during the night, or if data were incomplete on the previous night’s nest, please fill in the sarang pagi info on the day nest sheet.
  6. Evening nest: Write down activities until the focal lies down (golek) on nest Fill in the Evening Nest (sarang sore) or the Day Nest checklist (sarang siang). Definitions of nest additions: • Pillow (bantal): a pile of twigs or big leaves at one side of the nest on which the focal puts its head when lying down. Blanket (selimut): a cover made from branches or leaves covering the body, not covering the head Lining (alas): a layer made on the nest from leaves or twigs on top of which the focal lies down. Roof (atap): a construction made from branches or twigs by the focal above and covering the nest (don’t forget to write down whether there is rain or bright sun: sunroof!) Bunk nest: if the focal rests in a nest directly under another nest (either old or just made) this is called a bunk nest. Write details. Carry Tarantang leaves: focal picks and carries Tarantang leaves (or note if other species) towards the nest from other tree.
  7. Patch Residence: Make a vertical line in column “jenis/patch”, ending when focal leaves the patch. End with __. Different trees of the same species less than 10 m apart are considered a single patch.
  8. When possible measure feeding rate, enter on focal page 4/5 for focals and mothers; on mother-offspring page 6 for offspring. Make sure that feeding rates always refer to same set of activities as “F” on focal sheets, so that you can extrapolate to total intake.
  9. Long Calls: fill out checklist for every call given by the focal and for every call heard by observer (and focal).
  10. Map: On every map: • draw exact route indicate location on every whole and half hour indicate location of morning nest (X), or start observation (o) indicate location at evening nest (X) or end observation due to other reason (o) indicate location of food patches used for > 10 minutes



  1. 1. Party: whenever the focal is within 50 m of other orangutans this is a party. Note the identity (or at least age-sex class) of party members + time start & end on focal page 4/5. Always note the presence of (dependent) offspring as well (so: not just name of mother, but always add name of infant if infant is with mother). Please also note if the association (<50m between individuals) ended when/because another individual joined the party. IF THE OTHER ORANGUTAN IS NOT BEING FOCALED PLEASE WRITE DOWN ALL ITS BEHAVIOUR (AND VOCALISATIONS) THAT APPEARS INTERESTING, ESPECIALLY WHEN DIRECTED TO THE FOCAL.
  2. The distance between party members is recorded on the “5min party sheet”: every 5 minutes write which party members are at 0-2 m, 2-10m and at 10- 50 m distance. Unless offspring is clinging to the mother all the time, do this for both mother and offspring relative to other party members.
  3. Approach and Leave: Note on focal page 4/5 which party members spend time at < 10 m and at < 2 m from the focal; do the same for non-clinging offspring with other party members. Keep track of who approaches and who leaves the 2 m and 10 m radius and at what time.
  4. When focal travels in/with a party, including mother - offspring parties, always note in the “jenis/patch” column who leads: write name + dulu.
  5. When focal feeds in/with a party, including mother - offspring parties, always note in the “jenis/patch” column who enters and feeds in patch first: write name + dulu.
  6. 6. When the focal is in a food patch note the following situations in the “item” column: • feeding tolerance (ftol + who): focal and other are feeding in same patch < 10 m apart; also write this down for non-clinging offspring with regards to other party members. co-feeding (cof + who): focal and other are feeding from same item close together or take turns; includes “tolerated theft” (one holds item, other takes - note who “owns) food sharing (share): active giving of food by one to other (note who does what) add details in sosial column mouth-to-mouth feeding (mtm), also mouth-to-hand (mth), hand-to-mouth (htm) and hand-to-hand (hth), this happens mostly between mother and infant,

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